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Sunday, February 20, 2011

Coca-Cola formula


Original formula

Published versions say it contains sugar or high fructose corn syrupcaramel colorcaffeinephosphoric acidcoca extractkola nut extract, lime extract, vanilla and glycerin. Alleged syrup recipes vary greatly. The basic “cola” taste from Coca-Cola and competing cola drinks comes mainly from vanilla and cinnamon; distinctive tastes among various brands are the result of trace flavorings such as orangelime and lemon and spices such as nutmeg.[1]

[edit]The Everett Beal's Recipe Book

In Feb 28, 1979 Article Atlanta Journal and & Constitution Newspaper Everett Beal's Recipe Book with pictured: Everett Bealʼs Recipe Book.
Pemberton's Notebook Published in the 1992 History: For God, Country Coca-Cola. [2]
To this day, Coca-Cola uses a United States license to purify the coca leaf for medicinal use.[3] Because cocaine is naturally present in coca leaves, today's Coca-Cola uses "spent," or treated, coca leaves, those that have been through a cocaine extraction process, to flavor the beverage. The coca leaves are imported from countries like Peru and Bolivia, and they are treated by chemical company Stepan, which then sells the de-cocainized residue to Coca-Cola.[4] Some contend that this process cannot extract all of the cocaine alkaloids at a molecular level, and so the drink still contains trace amounts of the stimulant.[1][5] The Coca-Cola Company currently refuses to comment on the continued presence of coca leaf in Coca-Cola.[6][7] A court case in Antalya, Turkey mentioned cochineal dye in Coca-Cola, but the company denies it currently uses the dye.[8][9]

[edit]Other formulas


In the United States, Coca-Cola normally uses high-fructose corn syrup instead of sugar as its main sweetener, due to the combined effect of corn subsidies and sugar import tariffs making HFCS substantially cheaper. There are two main sources of sugar-based Coca-Cola in the United States:

[edit]Kosher Coca Cola

Kosher Coca Cola produced for Passover is sold in 2-liter bottles with a yellow cap marked with an OU-P, indicating that the Orthodox Jewish Union certifies the soda as Kosher for Passover, or with a white cap with a CRC-P indicating that the certification is provided by the Chicago Rabbinical Council.
While the usual Coca-Cola formula is kosher (the original glycerin from beef tallow having been replaced by vegetable glycerin), during Passover Ashkenazi Jews do not consumeKitniyot, which prevents them from consuming high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).[10]
Even sugar-based formulas would still require certification of both the formula and the specific bottling plant, as the strictures of Kashrut on Passover are far higher and more complicated than usual kosher observance.

[edit]Mexican Coca Cola

In the United States, there is strong demand from Hispanic customers for the Coke they enjoyed "back home", so Coca Cola supplies Mexican food stores with sugar-based Coca Cola in traditional contour bottles. In recent times, a cult following has emerged amongst younger Coke drinkers, believing this to be the pre-New Coke original formula. The company advises people seeking a sugar-based Coca Cola to buy "Mexican Coke".[11]

[edit]Coca Cola Commercial

On January 23, 2011, during an NFL commercial, Coca-Cola teased that they would share the secret formula only to flash a comical "formula" for a few frames. This required the use of DVR to freeze on the formula for any analysis, which ultimately proved to be a marketing ploy with no intention of sharing the full official formula. Ingredients listed in the commercial: Nutmeg Oil, Lime Juice, Cocoa, Vanilla, Caffeine, "flavoring", and a smile.

[edit]Purported secret recipes

[edit]Pemberton recipe

This recipe is attributed to a diary owned by Coca-Cola inventor, John S. Pemberton, just before his death in 1888. (U.S. measures).[12]
  • Ingredients:
    • 1 oz (28 g) caffeine citrate
    • 3 oz (85 g) citric acid
    • 1 US fl oz (30 ml; 1 imp fl oz) vanilla extract
    • 1 US qt (946 ml; 33 imp fl oz) lime juice
    • 2.5 oz (71 g) "flavoring," i.e., "Merchandise 7X"
    • 30 lb (14 kg) sugar
    • 4 US fl oz (118.3 ml; 4.2 imp fl oz) powder extract of cocaine (decocainized flavor essence of the coca leaf).
    • 2.5 US gal (9.5 l; 2.1 imp gal) water
    • caramel sufficient
  • "Mix caffeine acid and lime juice in 1 quart boiling water add vanilla and flavoring when cool."
  • Flavoring (Merchandise 7X):
  • "Let stand 24 hours."
This recipe does not specify when or how the ingredients are mixed, or the flavoring oil quantity units of measure (though it implies that the "Merchandise 7X" was mixed first). This was common in recipes at the time, as it was assumed that preparers knew the method.

[edit]Reed recipe

This recipe is attributed to pharmacist John Reed.[13][14]
  • 30 lb (14 kg) sugar
  • 2 US gal (7.6 l; 1.7 imp gal) water
  • 1 US qt (950 ml; 33 imp fl oz) lime juice
  • 4 oz (110 g) citrate of caffeine
  • 2 oz (57 g) citric acid
  • 1 US fl oz (30 ml; 1.0 imp fl oz) extract of vanilla
  • 3/4 US fl oz (22.18 ml; 0.78 imp fl oz) fluid extract of kola nut
  • 3/4 US fl oz (22.18 ml; 0.78 imp fl oz) fluid extract of coca

[edit]Merory recipe

Recipe is from Food Flavorings: Composition, Manufacture and Use. Makes one 1 US gallon (3.8 l; 0.83 imp gal) of syrup. Yield (used to flavor carbonated water at 1 US fl oz (30 ml; 1.0 imp fl oz) per bottle): 128 bottles, 6.5 US fl oz (190 ml; 6.8 imp fl oz).[15]
  • Mix 5 lb (2.3 kg) of sugar with just enough water to dissolve the sugar fully. (High-fructose corn syrup may be substituted for half the sugar.)
  • Add 114 oz (35 g) of caramel, 110 oz (3 g) caffine, and 25 oz (11 g) phosphoric acid.
  • Extract the cocaine from 58 drachms (1.1 g) of coca leaf (Truxillo growth of coca preferred) with toluol; dry the cocaine extract.
  • Soak the coca leaves and kola nuts (both finely powdered; 15 drachms (0.35 g) in 34 oz (21 g) of 20% alcohol.
  • California white wine fortified to 20% strength was used as the soaking solution circa 1909, but Coca-Cola may have switched to a simple water/alcohol mixture.
  • After soaking, discard the coca and kola and add the liquid to the syrup.
  • Add 1 oz (28 g) lime juice (a former ingredient, evidently, that Coca-Cola now denies) or a substitute such as a water solution of citric acid and sodium citrate at lime-juice strength.
  • Mix together
    • 12 drachms (0.89 g) lemon oil,
    • 14 drachms (0.44 g) orange oil,
    • 110 drachms (0.18 g) cassia (Chinese cinnamon) oil,
    • 25 drachms (0.71 g) nutmeg oil, and, if desired, traces of
    • coriander,
    • lavender, and
    • neroli oils,
  • Add 110 oz (2.8 g) water to the oil mixture and let stand for twenty-four hours at about 60 °F (16 °C). A cloudy layer will separate.
  • Take off the clear part of the liquid only and add the syrup.
  • Add 710 oz (20 g) glycerine (from vegetable source, not hog fat, so the drink can be sold to Jews and Muslims who observe their respective religion's dietary restrictions) and310 drachms (0.53 g) of vanilla extract.
  • Add water (treated with chlorine) to make a gallon of syrup.

[edit]This American Life recipe

On February 11, 2011 Ira Glass revealed on his PRI radio show, This American Life, that the secret formula to Coca-Cola had been uncovered in a 1979 newspaper. The formula found basically matched the formula found in Pemberton's diary.[16][17][18] The recipe revealed contains:[19]
  • Fluid extract of Coca: 3 drams USP
  • Citric acid: 3 oz
  • Caffeine: 1 oz
  • Sugar: 30 lbs
  • Water: 2.5 gal
  • Lime juice: 2 pints (1 quart)
  • Vanilla: 1 oz
  • Caramel: 1.5 oz or more for color
The secret 7X flavor (use 2 oz of flavor to 5 gals syrup):
  • Alcohol 8 oz
  • Orange oil: 20 drops
  • Lemon oil: 30 drops
  • Nutmeg oil: 10 drops
  • Coriander oil: 5 drops
  • Neroli oil: 10 drops
  • Cinnamon oil: 10 drops

[edit]

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